Site Update

Due to heavy workload over the last 3 years this site has become badly out of date and does not properly represent my recent work. It will be re-built in the coming months. Apologies. Pete!

10 things to consider before building a website

So you’re thinking of building a website. Here are some of the import an issues you need to consider and discuss with the team building your website before taking the plunge.

1. Purpose

Before starting any website project we must decide what is the purpose of the site. Who is the target audience? Most websites will have some kind of “Call To Action” (CTA) some more obvious such as “buy this” or “contact us” but it can be more subtle such as encouraging attendance at event or presenting a specific point of view. A website usually has several purposes but its most important function will be to reassure people that you are trustworthy, reliable and credible. Once you have established trust you can then begin to influence users responses. The site may have several types of users such as clients/suppliers or members/visitors and it is important to define who are the users and think about how you can meet their needs. Try to think in a user-centric way – i.e.“How can we help” rather than “This is what we have to say”. Create a website that quickly answers the questions or responds to the needs that brought the user to the site in the first place.

2. Budget

The size of your budget will define the scope of the project and will inform many of the other steps below. It is possible to build a website for virtually nothing or spend thousands of pounds but you will generally get what you pay for. The return on investment in a website can sometimes be hard to define exactly, the trust and credibility it may give your organisation will be had to evaluate in monetary terms. However there are lots of specifics that can be measured such as visitor numbers, sales or enquiries which give an indication of its success. Your website will often be the first point of contact people have with you or your organisation and that first impression is important. It is therefore well worth investing properly in a well designed, attractive website.

3. Process

Before you build the site it is important to plan the process with all of those contributing. Think about how you will work together, feedback and communicate as well as agreeing on a schedule. Even for small sites you will need some kind of plan for the different ‘milestones’ in the project such as supply of initial brief, sign-off of the design, supply of content, testing, snagging and go live date. Even if you do not stick exactly to the schedule it is helpful for everyone involved in the project to have some kind of timetable. Both the client and the designer/developers need deadlines and this will ensure that things don’t drift and the project gets finished.

4. Title and domain name

descriptive domain namesThe name of your site is important, ideally unique, memorable and descriptive of who and what you are. If you already have an organisation or company name then it’s a no-brainer but choosing a domain name is more complicated.  Shorter domain names are easier to remember but maybe less descriptive and very few domains of less than 5 letters are available now. A descriptive domain name may also help with you search engine rankings as relevance is important. Eg. will probably rank well when people search for “widgets”. You also need to decide on the appropriate top-level domain (TLD) .com,, .org, etc

5. Platform and hosting

This is a technical decision which will largely be driven by your budget and how you see the future of the site. In almost all cases I would recommend building a website using a Content Management System (CMS) which allows you to log-in and manage the site without the continual involvement of the original site designer. (Click here for a more detailed post on website Content Management Systems). A CMS may cost a little more than a simple hand-coded site but it will give you much more flexibility and ability to add more functionality in future. There are several options for CMS from very cheap basic online web-builder services such as Weebly to ‘premium’ bespoke CMS built by specialist web developers. For many small-medium sized organisations WordPress will be ideal – a free CMS that requires a designer or developer to set up and configure initially. As your organisation grows so your website requirements may become more sophisticated so it is important to select the right platform to allow some growth otherwise you may be faced with the cost of re-building the site virtually from scratch if you need to switch to a more powerful platform. Hosting maybe included with a paid-for CMS but if using WordPress you will need to purchase hosting separately, usually on an annual basis. There are hundreds of web hosting providers many with almost identical offerings. Your web designer can probably advise you on a good host but you need to consider how good is the technical support, is it secure and reliable and can the server cope if there is sudden increase in traffic to the site.

6. Content

Content is king, without good content your website is almost pointless. However it is about the quality and not necessarily about the quantity. It is advisable to devote considerable effort to structuring and writing the content of the site. Decide on your information structure i.e. the pages within the site and how they might logically be broken into sections. Maybe create a tree diagram

website structure tree diagram

showing roughly how the pages will sit within the sections. If you have the budget consider employing a professional copywriter otherwise try to involve people with good written English and editing skills from within your organisation. The content does not have to be complete before design and construction of the site begins (indeed the content of a good site is continually evolving) but you will need some idea of size and scope before starting.

7. Imagery

Most websites will require imagery which are a foundational part of the design because visual elements have greater impact than text. Although you may use illustrations, diagrams and icons, most websites rely heavily on photography. There are 3 main sources for photos. Photos taken by you or those within your organisation, photos taken by a professional on your behalf or stock photos purchased from online stock photo libraries. If you have someone within your organisation who is at least a ‘talented amateur’ photographer and can produce good results this will save you a great deal of money as professional photographers will charge a minimum of £500 per day. Obviously a professional will usually get far better results and this will be reflected on the website. There are many good stock photo libraries with photos from a few pounds, up to around £100 per image depending on size and quality. The big snag with stock images is that they are generic and are not specific to your organisation. In some instances it will not matter but particularly when you show pictures of people your users may sense that the images are not authentic.

Stock Photo Libraries

8. Design

Website design is a very large topic but when briefing your designer there are some fundamental things to consider. Do you have en existing corporate identity that should be the foundation for the design? What are the tastes of your target audience and how can the site best engage them? What are the values and the things that define your organisation that the design should reflect? It is also helpful to look at other sites (especially your competitors or those in a similar field) and decide what works well and what is less successful. Design is not just about ‘making it look pretty’ it is far deeper than that, how information is presented and what is the complete experience for the user. Trust your designer to do the design, provide a brief and some guidelines but avoid making arbitrary choices based on subjective personal preferences Eg. make the site red or make the logo bigger.

9. Management

Owning a website requires and ongoing effort beyond the initial design and build. It needs to be kept updated and evolve with you or your organisation and the needs of the users. Building on a CMS allows the owners to log-in and make changes as required. A website really needs a manager who is responsible for this as well as monitoring its performance and responding to enquiries or issues with the site. In small organisations this may be the job of one person but in larger organisations maybe a team. They may also have to act as ‘advocates’ for the site within the organisation to ensure appropriate and timely new content is added, while outdated content is removed or archived. The website manger need to keep up with developments online and may need to involve the designer or developers further to add additional features or make design changes.

10. Analytics and promotion

AnalyticsOne the site is live it is important to analyse its performance and try to improve visitor traffic. There are many analytics tools available, Google Analytics being the most widely used free option. Building a good website is not a guarantee of lots of traffic. I always build sites to be as search engine-friendly as possible (from a technical point of view). However there are SEO (Search Engine Optimisation) and web marketing specialists who can help fine tune the content to improve its listing – something of an art as Google keep changing their criteria. This is a niche skill and you may want to consider paying an SEO specialist if you want to significantly increase site traffic and responses.

10 of the best church websites

This is not a definitive list, or a ‘top-ten’ of church websites, but I thought it would be instructive to look at some of the best church sites to see what makes them stand out. Until recently many church websites were somewhat behind the times but this is no longer the case. Larger churches in particular are devoting a great deal of effort creating good content, great design and engaging with social media.

Mosaic Church Leeds

Mosaic Church, Leeds

This site is a far from the typical church website and has a very minimalist and simple design. Big bold typography and deep-scrolling reflect recent web design trends. Definitely at the leading edge of web design, it is truly ‘responsive’ website – ie the layout will automatically adjust depending on what screen you are using so its content and design is optimised and changes for mobile phone, ipad or PC etc.

What’s great: Bold, modern design allied to great photography.
Not so great: Hard to fault apart from an odd color palette and supersize text and images may not be to everyone’ taste



Christ Church, Mayfair, London

Another bold and modern site, with fully responsive design and similar to Mosaic church but with a softer more approachable feel.

What’s great: Generally clear and informative with great photography and navigation system.
Not so great: Slightly dated logo clashes with design and typography of the site.



Mars Hill Church, Seattle, USA

Love them or loathe them, Mars Hill and its Pastor Mark Driscoll are one of the most influential churches in the world. A large multi-campus church, their website is the gold-standard for church websites and succeeds in presenting a great deal of content in an attractive and manageable way. Navigation is nicely handled with complex drop down menus and sections and pages themed with custom-designed images and thumbnails. Obviously such a large church can afford a first-rate in-house professional web and media team and it shows!

What’s great: Great consistency of design and layout throughout a large site
Not so great: Hard to find faults!



Church of Christ the King, Brighton

A very confident bold design appropriate for one of the most influential churches in the UK. The homepage dominated by very large images. Quirky push-down navigation system and nice “related content” and “upcoming events” links within the site enhance the user journey though what is a large site with a lot of content. Winner of “Best Large Church Website” at the Christian New Media Awards 2012.

What’s great: Animated straplines below the logo convey the church’s values in a clever way without being distracting.
Not so great: Boxes butting up together at the bottom of the homepage don’t always work.



LiverpoolOne Church

A punchy and vibrant site that doesn’t worry too much about design finesse but grabs your attention with strong graphics and a red/black theme. Welcome video and slide show animation on the homepage co-exist well and it feels like there is a lot going on with being too cluttered. Winner of “Best Small Church Website” at the Christian New Media Awards 2012.

What’s great: ‘In your face’ style of homepage in particular.
Not so great: Typography on main content pages is a little dull.



East End Church, London

A unique site for a small church that has real personality. This site proves you don’t have to be a large church to have great content. Preparing good written content and photography can often be overlooked but in this site the copy is provocative and speaks directly to its community in plain language. Its simple design has an unpretentious feel with photography that has an urban edge.
(*I must declare an interest as designer of this site)

What’s great: Great copy and images with straightforward, uncluttered  presentation.
Not so great: Lack of updates about current news and events.



 Zion Reformed Church, Ohio, USA

This site has shows no pretentious to be particularly modern and cool but is a good example of a small church site that is conveys friendliness and does not overwhelm the user with information or images. It is essentially an adapted blog but has been done with taste and style.

What’s great: Simple presentation of information and neat and consistent typography.
Not so great: Lack of images (in particular images from the church) can make some of the content pages feel a bit dry.



Planetshakers, City Church, Melbourne, Australia

Most of the pages of this site have intricate graphic design elements and it really feels like a work of art in places. Not a typical approach to a website look and feel but works great when a church can afford a talented in-house designer. Makes great use of social media to support the site and is sure to be very effective at engaging with a younger audience.

What’s great: Lots of depth and variety of styles without feeling disjointed.
Not so great: Main navigation rather small.



St Paul’s, Hammersmith, London

Effective and under-stated site for large thriving Anglican church with a traditional past but a modern outlook. Strong underlying grid for the layout with a good mix of information on the homepage and easy to find what you want quickly.

What’s great: Consistent treatment of images and handy crumbtrail navigation helps the user stay orientated.
Not so great: Some may think it feels a bit corporate.



 Kingdom Faith Churches, UK

Really an umbrella site for 5 churches, this site has a great deal of content and it manages to keep good design consistency thought despite its complexity.

What’s great: So much content beautifully presented. Perfect example of how to use rounded corners in a website well.
Not so great: Possible information overload in places. Main text very small.

Me and the Mac – how Apple shaped my working life

WordPress content management system back office

Love at first byte – State of the art 1991
(image via Wikipedia)

It started in 1991 with an Apple Classic. A little beige box that seems to have personality and a sense of fun that was nothing like the other computers I had seen or used, an ‘all in one ‘ with a 12 inch black & white screen. It promised something magic – the ability to do  graphic design in a What You See is What You Get (WYSWYG) environment. With the magic of a mouse and a screen that actually displayed what would print on the paper. More than 20 years later it maybe hard for some to grasp how revolutionary this was. Suddenly the design process became fun. Maybe I lack the patience, but I doubt I would have made a career in the slow & painstaking world of lick, stick and paste-up that was the state of the art in graphic design before the Mac.

Until the moment I met the Mac I had meandered through a crummy ‘modular’ degree, majoring in design at the dreary and uninspiring City of London Polytechnic (which became London Guildhall University since swallowed by London Metropolitan University). The idea that the vast subject of design could be covered by a single degree was deeply flawed but I had unwisely taken this course in order to avoid spending a year either throwing paint at walls or trying to ‘finding myself’ on an art foundation course required by more reputable graphic or product design courses. The practical work for the Graphic Design module of the course mostly involved a pencil & crayons and the course was so poor it did not even properly cover the paste-up process then in use in most studios. My only other brush with a computer in the college was a bizarre machine that literally pushed individual pixels around at snail pace using archaic keyboard commands and would print out tiny images. In the early 1990s few people, especially students could afford computers at home and time had to be booked in the much revered ‘computer suite’ to use a Mac. (I think the suite was expensively kitted out with Mac IICi models). My first real world graphic design work was the design of promotional materials for a pantomime and I fumbled about with Aldus FreeHand creating these ‘masterpieces’ which were adequate but my poor design education and lack of understanding of basic typography is plain to see looking back now.

Anyway after graduating into a recession and enduring an excruciating period of unemployment (I feel your pain, college graduates of today) I landed a year’s internship with a small design company and learned more about graphic design in my first 3 weeks than I had in 3 years at college. The main work was designing reports for charities using Aldus PageMaker  Mostly I used a mighty Macintosh Quadra. This was a ‘high end’ machine and we even had a 17 inch screen that made designing A4 pages at least tolerable but I was also sometimes forced endure using a PC running Windows 3  as the company could not afford a full suite of Macs. By the end of the year the PC had thankfully gone and we had moved from using Pagemaker to Quark XPress. By 1994 I had scraped enough money together  to buy my first home Mac – a second-hand LCII (LC  for ‘Low Cost’ – something resembling a pizza box, with a colour 12 inch screen). I probably spent more time loading freeware that came on floppy disks selotaped to the front of MacUser magazines than doing much serious design work but it was nice to have a Mac to experiment with.

I eventually got a permanent paid job as a junior designer, working at a London advertising agency and was the just in time to witness the final demise of paste-up and black and white artwork supplied on bromide or film as the company switched fully to doing all design and production on Macs. I spent 7 years at that company and used a variety of machines which included a Power Macintosh 8600 a G3 tower, a G4 Graphite tower and a G4 ‘Mirrored Drive Doors’ Tower. For most of that time in the 1990s Macs users were in a minority, seen as a weird sect in Windows-dominated world. Macs were mistakenly seen as ‘acceptable niche machines for designers and creatives’ but not much use for anything else. When the transparent ‘Blondi blue’  iMac arrived in 1998, followed soon after by the iPod, it was the beginning of a big change in Apple fortunes that took it from obscurity to the uber-cool and fashionable force it is today. I had never loved Macs because I wanted to support the underdog or got a thrill out of going against the mainstream. I was fortunate to be in a profession where they were used in the work environment but fundamentally it was an addiction – once I had been introduced to Macs (and then further inoculated by being forced to use a PC occasionally) there was simply no going back.

WordPress content management system back office

27 inches of joy – Apple iMac 2013

My history of home-owned macs progressed to Power Mac 4400, which I replaced with a G4 Tower. In 2002 I bought my first laptop – a second-hand Titanium PowerBook and this was the first machine I used that run OSX – a fundamentally new operating UNIX-based operating system that Apple adopted to replace its OS9. OSX has stood the test of time and it still forms the core of Apple’s Operating Systems today. It’s UNIX foundations has now made Mac very stable and I often go for weeks without requiring a restart. Applications still crash occasionally but I have only experienced a handful of OSX crashes (‘kernel panics’) in the last 10 years of using Macs almost every day. This kind of reliability is crucial when working on tight deadlines. In the old days of OS8 and OS9 I would suffer from freezes at least every couple of days which could result in the loss of several hours work.

Amazingly I have never thrown away a Mac but always managed to sell or give away every machine I’ve owned and finished with – this is a testimony to the long-term value of even old Macs which may have cost more in the first place, but continue to work reliably long after a PC would have been ditched. Plenty of printers, scanners and disk drives are however, my sorry contribution to the world’s landfill.

Am I an Apple fanboy? – yes and no. There is much about Apple that I find annoying, particularly now they are now the most dominant brand in the world and of course Macs don’t always perform flawlessly. I only recently bought an iPhone and don’t have and iPad. You definitely won’t catch me in the queue at the Apples store when there is a new release or whoophing it up at an Apple Keynote. My affection for Apple goes much deeper than pretty hardware – fundamentally it’s the operating systems that are most engaging and exciting, it is the attention to detail and the whole user experience that means for the majority of my working life I have actually looked forward to sitting down in front of one and getting stuff done.

What is a website content management system?

When building a website it is very important to consider how the site will be maintained after launch. Although you could employ your web designer to manage the site it will generally be much more efficient and cost-effective for you as the website owner if you can log-in and make changes yourself. In order to do this the site must be built on a web content management system (CMS) which allows you to change the code of the web pages. In simple terms, a CMS stores the content data for a website and presents it publicly as a web pages and privately to the site editor in a ‘back office’. The back office is an interface that allows the editor to manage the site without involvement from a web designer or developer.

When clients ask me to build a web site, I would usually recommend that it’s built on a CMS. I do sometimes build small sites for clients that are simple HTML code uploaded direct to a web host, this is cheaper and quicker than using a CMS, however there are many advantages to a CMS that usually out-weigh these short-term initial costs.

Remember if you need to call your web designer every time you need to make a change this will cost money and probably take longer than if you or someone in your organisation makes the change. Most web designers are focussed on the initial design and delivery of websites and don’t usually offer day-to-day management services.

WordPress content management system back office

Screenshot of this post in the WordPress
content management system ‘back office’

Separating content from the design

A good CMS will employ templates that provide a consistent look and feel throughout the site whatever changes are made to the content. Effectively the content is kept separate (usually stored in a database) to the code that controls the design. A big advantage of this is that the templates can be changed easily so the site can look completely different while retaining the same content. It also means the user is unable to accidentally ‘break’ the site by deleting fixed elements (such as the header or navigation) or distort the layout by adding content that falls outside the main content area. That said, it is still wise for the user to have some understanding of design issues as it is still possible to make a mess with inappropriate size images, inconsistent text styling etc.

The basic functions you should expect from a CMS

  • Secure log-in using a standard web browser to a back office from where one or more people can manage the site
  • The option for your web designer to design and implement a template that keeps the basic design consistent across the site even when you change the content
  • Ability to open pages, change text and images
  • Ability to style text on pages, add links to other pages, other sites and documents
  • Ability to add and delete pages with any changes automatically reflected in the navigation
  • Ability to create draft pages that are visible in the back office and ready to publish at a later date but not yet live on the site
  • Ability to upload photos, documents and mange them in a library

Beyond the basic functions

Depending on the CMS there are many ways that CMS can provide other functions. Most large CMS platforms have scalable feature sets, offering hundreds of additional ‘modules’ or ‘plug-ins’ that can be added to the main system to provide functions as they are needed. Some examples of these functions could be to provide slideshows of images, a Twitter feed on the site, interactive web forms or spam filtering for comments. This kind of extensibility means that if there is a function you need for your site there is a usually ready-made solution you can add to the system, often very quickly and freely available. By using a CMS you get the benefit of off-the-shelf code that provides lots of functionality for the site rather than paying to re-invent the wheel and develop from scratch.

Which CMS should I use?

There are essentially 2 types of CMS; Open Source or Proprietary. Open Source means that the system is based on code that is developed by a large community and given away free to use. Proprietary systems are usually developed by a single company who charge for using their system. Both options have their advantages. Open Source systems will cost you nothing to download (WordPress, Joomla and Drupal are leading examples) are developed and supported by a huge community who freely give of their time to continually improve the system. The huge user and developer base means that most problems have been encountered and solved before and the system is improving fast. However although there are online forums and lots of online help, these systems do not provide active support to users and it will require some technical knowledge to set up and configure them before use.

Proprietary systems have a company dedicated to directly and actively supporting the user and will probably provide either phone or email support, together with guarantees about the security and uptime for the system. Their system will be ready to use and not require installation like an open source CMS. The down-side is that you are paying a monthly or annual fee and that even a large company will struggle to compete with the number of developers working globally to constantly improve a product like WordPress. Paid for CMS maybe the best option for niche markets and businesses where there maybe CMS providers who have particular expertise in that area and offer a CMS tailored specifically to the needs of that type of client. (eg church websites or school websites). Very large organisations such as the BBC may have their own proprietary CMS built specifically for their needs and complex requirements. There may also be a need for collaboration by thousands of users across a single organisation with complex publishing protocols which open source solutions can’t handle.

There are also many companies that use an open source CMS which they will install and support for you for a fee. Most web designers will have a few CMS that they are familiar with and they will be able to recommend which is the best choice for you.

What’s the difference between a blogging tool and a CMS?

The world’s leading CMS is WordPress but it started life as a blogging tool. Blogs are websites composed or a series of ‘post’ displayed in chronological order, usually with the most recent at the top and older posts residing in an archive. WordPress has now developed into a full-blown CMS that is designed to manage a complete website with many pages although still optimised to be centered around a blog. Blogger (now owned by Google) is probably the simplest free blogging tool and requires no installation and even provides free hosting for users. Blogger is ideal for just plain blogging and is a lot simpler that WordPress but is limited if you plan to expand your blog into a full website in the future. There are many other blogging tools such as Tumblr and ‘curation’ tools such as Storify or Scoopit but these are beyond the scope of this post.

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Thoughts on getting the most from Twitter

There are loads of people out there who know far more about Twitter (see my previous post on the power of Twitter) than I but here a few of my observations:

  • Don’t try to follow too many people. Too many and you will start to get lost in the noise and be unable to get a grip on what’s going on. Be selective about who you follow and don’t automatically follow someone who follows you. Look at their Twitter feed and profile and try to gauge if they will add interest and substance to your network. If you decide to follow a large number of people then use an app like TweetDeck that offers groups and filters. Don’t be afraid to un-follow people who you feel have begun wasting your time.
  • You can benefit from following a variety of people with a mix of opinions. Don’t just follow people like yourself or only people you agree with. If you want to really understand the world then you need to engage with people who may not share your world view. Select a few interesting people in this category, you may learn something and have the opportunity to influence them once you have gained their respect. Try to remain open minded and be prepared to discuss issues with people on all sides of the debate. It is possible to be friends with someone you totally disagree and it’s very healthy when both sides can respect each other and communicate without resorting to abuse.
  • Avoid mundane personal info but keep it real. “I’m on the train” or another photo of your breakfast will not add much to the sum of human knowledge, can become annoying and probably get you unfollowed. However talking about the stuff that is going on in your life is important and helps people get to know you.
  • Remember Twitter is a mainly conversation not a billboard or broadcast medium. Be prepared to engage in conversations. Twitter becomes really interesting when you get into a discussion or observe other people’s conversations. If you ONLY use Twitter to promote yourself, your events or just your point of view you won’t attract many followers. Engage with the community, chat, share and discuss. You will quickly find, as in life and on the web generally, there are plenty of people with extreme, weird or offensive views on Twitter. Be careful not to be provoked into hasty ill-thought out responses which you may regret later. Be prudent about who you engage with, sometimes it’s wise just to avoid being dawn into rants or dead-end conversations.
  • Find a few subjects and Tweet mostly about them. People with similar interests will then follow you and you can be an influencer or ‘go-to’ person on that topic. The most successful Twitter users are usually talking about a few niche subjects rather only randomly talking about what is on their mind that particular day. For example my personal Twitter feed is mostly about my work, the Mac & iPhone, church stuff and a bit of football. Being interesting is the first priority and endlessly just re-Tweeting other people’s stuff or nothing but links is rather mundane. Try to let your personality show through and talk about the things you know and understand best.
  • Don’t Tweet too much. There is no hard and fast rule about how often it is advisable to tweet but I know I get annoyed when I see that same person filling my twitter feeds with endless chatter, however interesting they may be. Avoid automated Tweeting systems (that for example Tweet every song you listen to on Spotify). Automated Tweets will get you unfollowed fast.
  • Tweet your photos and links to photos when you can. Although Facebook is a generally better medium for sharing photos, tweeted photos, particularly as of events as they happen are very useful. I find them particularly interesting when they show an event or subject that I’m interested in when I am unable to be there in person.
  • Don’t get obsessed with the number of followers you have. If you think Twitter is a competition to get the most followers then you’ve missed the point. Obviously it’s desirable to have a larges network, but what is more important is the quality of your followers. It is better to have a few followers who re-tweet you and chat with you than loads who are not really paying much attention. Building a good Twitter network involves playing the long-game, it will take time and effort to build a valuable network. Avoid shady offers the that promise to “add 5000 followers instantly”. Even if these schemes actually work, then followers will be spammy and probably of little relevance to you. This in not going to enhance your network or credibility on the long-run. Accept that you will lose followers as well as gain them. Don’t worry if you lose a few followers from time to time but if you suddenly have a big drop in followers then maybe re-consider how you are tweeting.

[Baltant self promotion alert] Follow me on Twitter

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